In addition to the operational part of the project, the possibility to measure with the help of satellites ocean surface effects or changes in the upper atmosphere induced by a tsunami will be investigated. There are potentially a multitude of technologies which could be utilized for the purpose. As part of the project, the relevant methods and procedures will be evaluated, as well as whether they are suitable for an operational environment.
It is known that events like weather fronts, nuclear explosions, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes cause changes in the atmosphere. The traces they leave in the plasma density of the ionosphere can be found using differential GPS phase measurement of density changes. Infrasonic waves cause changes in the temperature of the mesopause which can be measured by infrared spectrometers. On the ocean surface, high frequency radar systems are already being used today to monitor surface currents and waves. Active microwave technologies—working independently of weather and illumination— are also suitable for monitoring the sea surface.
In addition, the potential of current and planned earth observation sensors to detect geohazards in general is to be evaluated. Considering that UNESCO plans to established a multihazard system in the long term, the opportunities provided by new spaceborne radar and optical sensor systems for monitoring changes on the earth’s surface, such as landslides, volcanic activity, tectonic motion and surface deformations are to be indicated.